Persian astronomy and astrology – Ulugh Beg

In the roughly 14 hundred years from Ptolemy writing The Almagest in the 2nd century until the invention of the telescope made more accurate astronomical observations possible at the beginning of the 1600s, many transcripts and transcripts of transcripts were made of his star catalogue by astronomers of the mediaeval East and Europe, but only a few of them contributed to the original work with additions or corrections based on their own observations. One of these astronomers was Mīrzā Muhammad Tāraghay bin Shāhrukhbetter known as Ulugh Beg, Timurid ruler of the region of Samarkand in the 15th century.

Ulugh Beg became governor of Samarkand in 1409, when his father Shah Rukh finally managed to take possession of the eastern portion of the empire established by his father Timur (Tamerlane) and moved his capital to Herat. Coming from an educated family – his parents were patrons of art and science, his mother’s efforts had even made the education of woman acceptable for a short time – his intension was to turn the city into an intellectual center.
In 1417 he began to build a madrasah – an institute for higher education – in Samarkand for studying different disciplines of secular science from astronomy and mathematics to medicine and poetry.

The two-story building-complex arranged around a rectangular courtyard with an imposing entrance portal and two minarets at the front facade included dormitory cells and rooms for the scholars and students, four lecture rooms at the four corners and a mosque at the west wall of the courtyard. Ulugh Beg invited the best scholars he could find as lecturers, and the Ulugh Beg Madrasah soon became the leading center of Islamic education in Central Asia. Today the building is still standing at the Registan, the center of Samarkand, with two other madrasahs built in the 17th century on two other sides of the square.

Although educated and active on many fields, Ulugh Beg’s main interests – inspired probably by a childhood visit to the remnants of the Marāgha Observatory, where Persian astronomer al-Tusi and his team completed around 1270 the star catalogue called the Ilkhanic tables (Zīj-i Īlkhānī) – had always been mathematics and astronomy. In 1420 he started to build the enormous observatory Gurkhani Zīj near Samarkand, with huge structures used as instruments to increase the accuracy of astronomical observations and measurements to the maximum. The observatory was unparalleled in its time.

‘Its circular main building, beautifully decorated with glazed tiles and marble plates, had a diameter of about 46 m and three stories reaching a height of approximately 30 m above ground level. The north–south axis of the main building was occupied by a huge sextant with a radius of 40 m (called Fakhrī sextant after that of Khujandī). On the scale of this instrument, which partially lay in an underground slit with a width of half a meter, 70 cm corresponded to 1° of arc, so that the solar position could be read off with a precision of 5″. On the flat roof of the main building various smaller instruments could be placed, such as an armillary sphere, a parallactic ruler, and a triquetrum. Among other instruments known to have been used in Samarqand are astrolabes, quadrants, and sine and versed sine instruments.’

source: Benno van Dalen © Springer International Publishing AG

Around this time Ulugh Beg was already working together with numerous scholars he invited to join his madrasah, among them renowned scientist Qāḍī Zāda al-Rūmī and the excellent Islamic astronomer and mathematician Jamshid al-Kāshī, author of an updated star catalogue called Khaqani Zīj. With a team of about 60-70 fellow scientists, based on systematical observations and computations carried out between 1420 and 1437 they completed an astronomical handbook with tables called Zīj-i-Sultani. 

The catalogue includes the coordinates of 1018 stars, the listing is based on Abd al-Rahman al-Sufi‘s Kitab al-Kawakib al-Thabita – The Book of Fixed Stars from the late 10th century, an augmented and improved version of Ptolemy’s Almagest.
As Ulugh Beg explains in the preface:

“Determination of the Places of the Fixed Stars in Longitude and Latitude.

Before the time of Ptolemy 1,022  fixed stars had been observed. Ptolemy has given them in a catalogue in the Almagest. The stars are distributed in six magnitudes; the largest are of the first and the smallest of the sixth magnitude. Each magnitude is divided into thirds, and in order to recognize the stars, 48 figures or constellations have been imagined, of which 21 are north of the ecliptic, 12 in the Zodiac, and 15 south of the ecliptic. The larger number of the stars are within the figures, the others are in the neighborhood, and are designated as unformed stars of the constellation.

Abd Al Rahman Sufi composed a treatise on the stars which all learned men have received with gratitude. Before determining by our own observations the position of these stars, we have laid them down on a sphere according to this treatise, and we have found that the greater part of them are situated differently from their appearance in the heavens. This determined us to observe them ourselves with the assistance of Divine Providence, and we have found that they were advanced from the epoch at which Sufi’s work was written, so that on giving them, according to this general observation, their absolute positions, we no longer found any difference from their appearance to the eye.

It is on this principle that we have reobserved all the stars already determined, with the exception of 27 which are too far to the south to be visible at the latitude of Samarkand (…) and we have taken these 27 stars from the work of Abd Al Rahman Sufi, taking account of the difference of epoch.

Besides these there are 8 stars mentioned by Abd Al Rahman Sufi in his book, of which Ptolemy gives the positions, but which Abd Al Rahman Sufi could not find, and which notwithstanding all our researches, we have been unable to discover. For that reason we do not indicate those stars in the present catalogue.(…)

In our catalogue we have given the position of the stars for the beginning of the year 841 of the Hegira, so that at any time we may be able to find the place of any stars on the supposition that they advance one degree in seventy solar years.”

source: Archive.org

The preface to the tables consists of four parts. The first three parts contain methodical descriptions of different astronomical measurements and calculations e.g. determining the length and initial days of years and months, the equation of the Sun and Moon, positions and characteristics of the stars and the seven planets, calculating eclipses, Moon phases and determining the position of the twelve celestial houses: the Zodiac signs. The fourth part of the preface is about astrology: horoscopes and nativities. Ulugh Beg, like many other Persian rulers, believed in astrology and fortune‐telling.
The catalogue also includes sheets of the motions and eclipses of the Sun, the Moon and the planets, longitude and latitude of several cities in various countries, trigonometric tables etc.

In 1449 Ulugh Beg was killed by his oldest son Abdal-Latif Mirza on his way to Mecca, his observatory was demolished by religious extremists, the library was looted, the scholars were forced to flee. Ali Qushji, a former student and leading astronomer at the observatory managed to take a copy of the original manuscript with him. This manuscript was translated from the original Farsi to Arabic and later to Latin, French and English – today, all known versions of the Zij-i-Sultani are translations.
The observatory buildings were excavated in 1908 by Russian archaeologist V. L. Vyatkin. Foundations of the three story cylindrical structure and underground sections of the giant marble sextant can be seen on site.

The work of Ulugh Beg and his colleague astronomers may not be ‘revolutionary’ in the sense of creating something absolutely new, but the accuracy of collecting, reobserving, recalculating, updating and correcting the data of existing catalogues, and listing altogether 1018 stars make Zij-i-Sultani one of the most important star inventories in the history and a highly influential work of Persian astronomy and astrology, that continued to be used in the Islamic world until the 19th century.

sources:
Archive.org
Heather Hobden
Benno van Dalen © Springer International Publishing AG

images:
1. ©Francisco Anzola CC BY 2.0

2. ©Mr Hicks46 CC BY-SA 2.0
3. source: Christies
4-5. source: National Education Ministry of Bursa
6. ©Leon Yaakov CC BY-NC 2.0                             
7. ©Adam Baker CC BY 2.0

GRADUATION GIFT – personalized gift ideas

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personalized graduation gift custom-made graduation present personalized gift ideas university college highschool graduation commencement ceremony diploma

Graduation from high school, college or university is an important rite of passage, a ceremony that marks the leaving of one stage of life behind and entering into another. Completing a program of study, achieving a degree, finishing an academic year is an accomplishment worthy of praise and celebration.

Educational institutions all around the world share many commencement and graduation customs. The academic gowns, caps and hoods, the single file march to the stage, the formal handshake and the handing of the diploma, even the yearbooks are all traditions rooted deeply in the centuries old history of education – a really special graduation gift should represent the same cultural context.

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bookspines personalized graduation gift ideas graduation present commencement ceremony diploma university college highschool graduate

Degree ceremonies and connected rituals stretch back to the establishment of the first European mediaeval universities of Bologna and Paris in the mid-11th century. The baccalaureate ceremony originates to 1432 at Oxford University, and Harvard was the first American university to hold a commencement ceremony in 1642.
Throughout the Middle Ages, higher education was mostly limited to institutions established by the church and managed by monasteries. Course of study used to contain Latin language, grammar, logic, rhetoric, philosophy, music, mathematics, astronomy and astrology, using mostly ancient writings from Roman and Greek resources. Astrology was an established discipline, considered as a part of astronomy, practiced by the most respected scientists of the era.

Today, evaluation of astrology has changed, but you don’t have to believe in astrology to understand and appreciate the symbolism of an astrological chart. The fact that the arrangement of the celestials at a given moment viewed from a given place is unique and will never precisely reoccur is unarguable – thus a depiction of this arrangement is also unique, and an ASTROLOGICAL CHART PRINT made for a significant moment and place can symbolize an event.

A perfect graduation present can be lots of things, but what we recommend you is a meaningful, personalized gift, that by nature is strongly connected to the traditions of education, and is a beautiful visual symbol to remember one of the great milestones and an important era of one’s life.

Please visit our Gallery or our Chart of the Week posts to have a look at more example charts, and use the Menu on the left to find out about available sizes and prizes, the preparing process of a chart and delivery options (we deliver worldwide).

If you decide to order one of our prints, you should consider a few opportunities when choosing the specific moment the chart should be made for.
The time and place of the commencement ceremony is an obvious choice, but it’s not necessarily the date that can signify the moment the best.
Maybe the graduation is a step – a first or a final one – to a dream come true, that began years ago, when a child, influenced by a strong experience, an encounter, or a person decided to be a doctor, an astronomer, an architect, or an artist growing up, and THAT was the defining moment.
Maybe in the long learning years to achieve a degree there was an instant that proved to be a turning point on the way, even more important than the handing of the diploma, and that is the moment to remember.
It’s your choice, just as it is to specify the personalized texts on the print: the name of the graduate, the institution, the interval of years of study,  the motto of the school or a profession or any personal text within the 20 character limitation.

GUTENBERG BIBLE

The publishing of the Gutenberg Bible – the first book prepared with a printing press with movable type – was not only an important technological breakthrough in history but also the beginning of an intellectual revolution that made books available to a wide range of people who had no access to knowledge before due to the fact that until the mid -15th century manuscripts were solely copied with years long tedious work by hand, thus books were precious and rare possessions of monarchs, monasteries, universities or very wealthy individuals.

In Europe, Johann Gutenberg (1400-1468, Mainz, Germany) is considered as the inventor of the method that made the mass-producing of books possible. He conceived the technique of combining letters to create text on paper using type cast in molds, a new, oil-based ink and a wooden printing press borrowing elements from the local Rhineland winepresses. In China, engraved wooden blocks had been used with a similar printing method to mass-produce books since the 9th century, but the results were rather poor in quality. Contrary to that, the prints made with Gutenberg’s technique were so precise, neat and elegant that the process spread swiftly across Europe and prevailed until the 19th century.

It’s very difficult to establish the exact date when the first edition of the Gutenberg Bible was completed. We know from the letters of Pope Pius II that in March 1455 he saw an example of the book displayed in Frankfurt to promote the edition. Sources also differ on the number of copies produced, but most probably there were about 180 finished copies, 3/4 of them on paper, the rest on vellum. Today, 49 of these are known to exist in whole or in part.

The chart is set to 12.00 on 23 February 1455, the day traditionally considered as the publishing date of the Gutenberg Bible.