Chartres Cathedral

The Chartres Cathedral – Cathedral of Our Lady of Chartres – is widely considered one of the finest examples of French Gothic architecture, and the building has indeed several aspects in its appearance and history that guarantee a special place among mediaeval cathedrals in Europe.
It was common in the Middle Ages that a building had been constructed through subsequent periods and completed only centuries after the beginning, but the majority of Chartres Cathedral was built with unusual speed (cca. 1198-1260) resulting in a remarkably consistent design and realization. Compared to other mediaeval churches the building has seen only relatively minor changes since the consecration in 1260. Most mediaeval cathedrals in France were looted and destroyed several times during the Wars of Religion and the Revolution, but Chartres Cathedral was spared the damage, even during World War II. Thanks to that, most of the original 13th century architectural details – even the huge stained glass windows and the sculptures and carvings of the portals and the interior – survived intact, the majority preserved in excellent condition. One of the many peculiarities of the cathedral is the numerous portrayals of the Zodiac signs on various architectural elements.

PORTAIL ROYAL: labours of the months and Zodiac signs (1142-1150)
The Portail Royal on the west facade has always been the main entrance of the cathedral. Apart from the crypts under the cathedral surviving from two earlier churches standing on this site, the west facade together with the two towers is the oldest part of today’s building – they are remnants of the earlier, partly Romanesque cathedral destroyed by a fire in 1194, incorporated into the current building. The Romanesque cathedral was built in more phases from 1020 until 1155, the Royal Portail dates from around 1140-50, representing a transition to the new Gothic style. It has three portals: a larger central portal accompanied with two smaller side portals, all of them with sculptures and lintels displaying a complex visual and theological scheme: the End of Time (Judgment Day) on the central, the infancy of Christ on the right, his second coming on the left portal. The Portail Royal derived its name from the tall statues on the doorjambs representing kings and queens of the Old Testament.


The archivolts on the left portal contain carvings of the Zodiac signs mingled with the labours of the associated 12 months – a common element appearing on many mediaeval churches in various forms, representing the cyclical nature of time and the wholeness of the Creation.

However, in this case the depiction has some very unusual characteristics: there are 12 labours of the month carvings on the archivolts but only 10 signs are portrayed. The most probable – albeit somewhat prosaic – explanation for this unusual arrangement is that the plans were changed while construction and there was not enough place left for the carvings originally intended. Thus, the two twin signs, Pisces and Gemini got a separate place at the bottom of the right portal’s inner left archivolt, and while the iconography of Gemini is standard, Pisces is rather unorthodox. There’s only one fish depicted, representing water, one of the four ancient elements, surrounded by the symbols of the other three: small flames (fire) under the fish’s belly, trees (earth) standing behind it with perching birds (air).
There’s also a less known Zodiac cycle on the Portail Royal: nested into the meandering ornament on the doorjambs  of the central portal delicate carvings portray the Zodiac sings.

NORTH TRANSEPT PORCH: labours of the months and Zodiac signs (1198-1217)
The transept (crossing) – just as the largest part of the cathedral – was built in the main construction period (1198-1260), according to the new design made after the 1194 fire. The deep, three-portal north and south porches were completed around 1215.
As usual for northern European cathedrals, the iconographical themes of the northern facade focus on Christ’s early life and Old Testament stories: the glorification of Mary on the center, the incarnation of Christ on the left, Job and the Judgment of Solomon on the right portal of the porch. The two outer archivolts of the right portal contain labours of the months and Zodiac signs carvings, in this case without any deviation from the common characteristics.

chartres cathedral north portal zodiac signs labours of the month mediaeval gothic architecture
chartres cathedral north portal zodiac signs labours of the month mediaeval gothic architecture

The arrangement of the signs and the monthly rural activities on the arches follows the path of the Sun throughout the year: the cycle starts with January from the left bottom, continues until June, pictured at the top of the arch, as daylight increases until the summer solstice, then the cycle ends with decreasing daylight until the winter solstice in December, at the right bottom of the arch. The two extra carvings at the bottom of the outmost arch depicting the Zodiac signs portray Winter and Summer: a men’s figure dressed appropriately to the season.

SOUTH AMBULATORY WINDOW: labours of the months and Zodiac signs (1215-1218)

chartres cathedral zodiac signs stained glass window labours of the month south ambulatory mediaeval gothic architecture France chartres blue
chartres cathedral zodiac signs stained glass window labours of the month south ambulatory mediaeval gothic architecture France chartres blue

One of the most distinctive features of Gothic cathedrals is the new combination of architectural elements like pointed arches, clustered columns and flying buttresses, making the insertion of huge colored windows possible on every level of the building.
In Chartres Cathedral most of the 176 windows were filled with stained glass, extensively using a new, very bright, sodium cobalt colored blue developed on the site of the Saint Denis Basilica. The windows cover a total area of  cca. 2600 m2, the majority of them made and installed between 1205 and 1240, with a few lancet panels surviving from the Romanesque building destroyed by the fire. The depicted scenes include panels of the Virgin and the Child, Biblical stories from the Old and New Testament, the Lives of the Saints and some prominently displayed coats of arms of donors of some windows.
One of the south ambulatory windows repeats again the labour of the months and Zodiac signs cycle featured on the west and north facades. For the man of the Middle Ages the Zodiac signs symbolized not only the passing of time in a cycle of a year, or of life and death. The agricultural labours associated with the 12 months and the corresponding signs were presented as work blessed by God, imposed on Adam and his descendants to find their way to salvation (Vincent de Beauvais).  The top quartrefoil of the roughly 8.1m high and 2.2m wide lancet window portrays Christ with the Alpha and the Omega, as the beginning and ending of the cycles. The labours of the months are depicted on the left side, the associated Zodiac signs on the rights side panels, 8 month/sign individually, four pairs sharing the four central quatrefoils. The two bottom panels are signature panels of the window donors.
There are some odd inconsistencies in the order and pairing of the months and the signs: May/Gemini proceeds April/Taurus, July and June (paired with Leo) are interchanged, the caption November is missing and December occurs twice.

ASTRONOMICAL CLOCK: Zodiac sings on the dial (>1407-1528)
Common people’s everyday life in the Middle Ages was determined by the daily routine and the annual cycles of the agricultural tasks rather than the days of the calendar. However, to calculate the exact date of major religious ceremonies and feasts and the time of the daily prayers had been paramount, thus keeping track of time and date had been the duty of the church. For hundreds of years the easiest way to tell local time was to use a sundial – meridian sundials had been used even after the invention of the mechanical clock to determine local noon for the public and for adjusting the clocks.
The oldest sundial of Chartres Cathedral dates probably to the 13th century, and the first mention of an astrological clock on the cathedral displaying not only the hours but also the period of the year with Zodiac signs comes from 1407. According to the description it is probably the same clock we can see today, with subsequently installed additions and adjustments of the mechanism and the dial in the 16th century. Although most of the mechanism was disassembled and used to forge pikes during the Revolution, the clock went through restoration in 2006 and the dial is still preserved in the choire on the north side.

chartres cathedral astronomical clock zodiac signs dial
chartres cathedral astronomical clock zodiac signs dial

The 105 cm diameter dial of the clock is formed of four independent plates assembled by a central axis. The outmost ring shows the twenty-four hours of the day with a needle indicating the local time, the next ring – an azure blue background decorated with golden stars – displays the lunar day and the phases of the moon, the central plate with the painted Zodiac signs moving one degree every day indicates the course of the sun in the ecliptic. A small sun moving along a slit in the needle indicates the height of the sun relative to the horizon, showing also the hours of sunrise and sunset. The clock was adjusted every noon with a sundial.

sources:
Wikipedia

Jean-Yves Cordier
http://www.cathedrale-chartres.fr/

images © Philippe Giron 

Soisson Cathedral

soisson-cathedral-zodiac-signs-stained-glass-window
soisson-cathedral-zodiac-signs-stained-glass-window

Zodiac signs on a stained glass window of Soisson Cathedral, France.

La Meridiana – Sundial of the Milan Cathedral

The nearly 600 years long construction history (1386-1965) of the Milan Cathedral – il Duomo di Milano – is necessarily entangled with the history of the city. The cathedral is a special ‘imprint’ of the different architectural styles and the changes of public taste during that period, and of many trifle and defining moments in the city’s political, economic and social life. One of these stories is the construction of the cathedral’s sundial in the late 18th century.

In 1786 Maria Teresa issued a decree for the Lombardy region (under Austrian control that time) to change the official measurement of days from ‘Italian hours’ – a day lasting from sunset until sunset – to ‘French hours’ – a day beginning 12 hours after local solar noon (the moment when the sun transits the celestial meridian – roughly the time when it’s highest above the horizon on that day). To comply with this regulation a precise instrument had to be constructed for the city of Milan, capitol of Lombardy, to determine the moment of solar noon each day – that was the purpose of creating ‘La Meridiana‘, the sundial of the Milan Cathedral.

The cathedral as site was chosen by the Austrian and local authorities because the building seemed to meet all the technical and economic conditions – darkness, width, convenient access for citizens, relatively low expense of realization. The assignment was carried out by Giovanni Angelo De Cesaris (1749-1832) and Guido Francesco Reggio (1745-1804), astronomers of the Brera Astronomical Observatory, by creating a special sundial adapted to the characteristics of the building.

sundial for indicating solar noon consist of a gnomon (signifier) and a surface with the local meridian line – if positioned precisely, the gnomon’s shadow (or sun spot, depending on the type of the gnomon) crosses the meridian line exactly at solar noon. The Latin contractions am and pm – ante meridiem and post meridiem – refer to the Sun passing the meridian.
In the Milan Cathedral the gnomon is a 25.2 mm diameter hole created on the vault of the building at 23.82 meters above the floor, and the meridian is a 15 mm thin brass line embedded in the marble floor, crossing the nave of the cathedral from south to north just at the entrance, ending with an about 3 meter long section running on the north wall, to the point that signals the winter solstice. The reason of this unusual extending of the meridian is the fact that the gnomonic hole couldn’t be adjusted lower because of the thickness of the marble coating of the vault’s structure, and the width of the cathedral turned out to be insufficient to contain the whole meridian line on the floor.

The sun’s light projecting through the gnomonic hole remains visible for about half an hour each day, the spot reaches the meridian exactly at solar noon. The position of the crossing point changes constantly along the brass line through the year according to the Sun’s relative height. To indicate this movement there are marble slabs embedded along the meridian marking the period of the year with the corresponding Zodiac signs and the date when the Sun enters them. The sign of Capricornus, marking the winter solstice, is in a special position placed on the north wall, due to the above mentioned circumstances.

The constructing of the sundial began in May 1786 and was completed in October of the same year. The passage of the Sun at the meridian was signaled every day by attendants through the tower of Palazzo della Ragione to the tower of Castello Sforzesco, where a canon was fired announcing midday for the whole city. In the 19th century the sundial was used to adjust the city’s mechanical public clocks.
During the centuries the sundial went through a few modifications, audits and restorations mainly due to alterations of the cathedral’s interior and roof. The last audit was performed in 1976, when the excavations of the metro-line construction caused a lowering of the building’s floor level. These days, thanks to restoration, La Meridiana works precisely again.

You can find additional pictures on our Pinterest board.

sources: Museo Astronomico-Orto Botanico di Brera
              Osservatorio G. Galilei

 

Cologne Cathedral

Zodiac signs stained glass window Cologne Cathedral
Zodiac signs stained glass window Cologne Cathedral

Stained glass windows from the 19th century depicting the Zodiac signs in the Cologne Cathedral, Germany.

Saint Denis Cathedral

The official standpoint of the Catholic Church on astrology is pretty clear according to their Catechism, but the history of astrology and Christianity in the European Middle Ages shows a lot more complex and contradictory relation.
One of these contradictions is the common depiction of the Zodiac signs in Christian manuscripts, calendars, on artifacts and buildings, including the biggest and most significant cathedrals of the era. The rather simplistic explanation for this phenomenon is that while theologists and philosophers kept arguing on the reconcilability of God’s absolute will and the doctrine of free will versus the influence of planets on human life and decisions, they accepted what is called Natural Astrology: the idea that God rules the soul, and the planets are his intermediaries to govern the corporeal aspects of the living beings and their material universe.
According to this interpretation in mediaeval Christian architecture the Zodiac signs symbolize the wholeness of the Creation and are commonly associated with the natural cycles of a year.

Zodiac signs as mosaic or tiles on the floor, stained glass windows and reliefs can be found in many abbeys, monasteries and cathedrals of the mediaeval era, but only in a few cases appear all three of them on one building. One of these examples is the Cathedral of Saint Denis (also known as Basilica of Saint Denis) near Paris, one of France’s oldest and most significant cathedrals, the landmark of the transition from Romanesque to Gothic architecture.

Saint Denis, the first bishop of Lutetia (Roman Paris), was beheaded around 250 on the Montmartre and became the patron of Paris and France in later centuries. According to Carolingian legends, after his martyrdom he walked 6 miles with his severed head in his hands to the place where he wanted to be buried and a martyrium was erected on the site of his grave, where cca. 230 years later on the order of St. Geneviéve Saint Denis de la Chapelle was built. However, currently there aren’t reliable historical sources to establish the validity of these legends. According to the most probable historical version around 630 Dagobert I, the official founder of the Saint Denis Cathedral, reburied the relics of the martyr on the current site in a new chapel and Benedictine monastery built to honor the saint. The church was subsequently rebuilt in the 8th century and became a pilgrimage center and the burial place of almost every French king until the 18th century.

Around 1130 Abbot Suger, a highly influential churchman of his time, friend and counsellor both of Louis VI and Louis VII, started to reorganize and rebuild St. Denis to try to cope with the increasing crowds of pilgrims. After demolishing the old Carolingian westwork he extended the old nave and added a new, three-story nartex (entrance hall) with three portals, reflecting the proportions of the nave and the two lateral aisles. The sculptures and decorations of the three entrances on the new facade followed a complex visual and iconographic scheme.
The bigger central portal illustrates the Last Judgment, the south portal’s theme is the Last Communion of St. Denis, and the north portal – originally decorated with an unusual mosaic of the Virgin – since the 19th century portrays the Martyrdom of St. Denis, accompanied by the original 12th century carvings of the Zodiac signs on the doorjambs. For some reason, the depiction of the Zodiac signs is not complete: Cancer, Leo and Virgo are missing.

After completing the new westwork in 1140 Abbot Suger continued the constructions on the eastern end of the old nave. By building a new choire using architectural elements in a revolutionary way and thus enabling the insertion of huge stained glass clerestory windows he created the first example of a new architectural style later called French or Gothic style.
Almost a century later, in 1231, Abbot Odo Clement began the rebuilding of the old 8th century Romanesque nave in the evolved version of this style called Rayonnant Gothic, deriving its name from one of the characteristic elements of the style: the huge stained glass rose windows with radiating patterns of tracery.
The rose windows at both ends of the new transept were the first ones completed in this style, and heavily inspired the creating of the rose windows of Chartres Cathedral and Notre Dame. The window at the north end depicts the Tree of Jesse, the south window represents The Creation, with God at the center, surrounded by angels and the twelve Zodiac signs representing the Order of the Heavens and the path of the Sun, and 24 agricultural labors in the outer circle portraying the Order of the Earth.

Saint-Denis-Cathedral-Paris-south-transept-stained-glass-rose-window-The-Creation-God-Angels-Zodiac-Rayonnant Gothic French style mediaeval architecture
Saint-Denis-Cathedral-Paris-south-transept-stained-glass-rose-window-The-Creation-God-Angels-Zodiac-Rayonnant Gothic French style mediaeval architecture
Saint Denis Cathedral Paris south transept stained glass rose window The Creation Zodiac signs Rayonnant Gothic French style mediaeval architecture
Saint Denis Cathedral Paris south transept stained glass rose window The Creation Zodiac signs Rayonnant Gothic French style mediaeval architecture

Unfortunately most of the original glasswork – save 5 windows and a few fragments – was destroyed during the French Revolution and had to be rebuilt in the 19th century, together with the ravaged pavement, sculptures and the tombs of the French rulers buried in the cathedral. Only two planes of the original glasswork from the south window were left, the rest was recreated in the 1800s under the control of architects Francois Debret and Eugéne Viollet-le-Duc. The south window has been under reconstruction since 2006 because of the damage made by gradual distortions in the structure of the transept.

The youngest depiction of the Zodiac signs in the cathedral is a section of the tiled floor in the nave, leading to the altar. The floor level of the cathedral was changed quite a few times during the centuries, the current pavement was completed during the 19th century renovations when Violet-le-Duc rebuilt the floor of the nave and the transepts on the original 13th century level.

You can find additional pictures on our Pinterest board.

source:
The Abbey Church of Saint-Denis: Birthplace of Gothic Art and Architecture in Vol.4 No.2 of Athena Review

image source:
images of the west portal © Mary Ann Sullivan 
everything else © Philippe Giron