GUTENBERG BIBLE

The publishing of the Gutenberg Bible – the first book prepared with a printing press with movable type – was not only an important technological breakthrough in history but also the beginning of an intellectual revolution that made books available to a wide range of people who had no access to knowledge before due to the fact that until the mid -15th century manuscripts were solely copied with years long tedious work by hand, thus books were precious and rare possessions of monarchs, monasteries, universities or very wealthy individuals.

In Europe, Johann Gutenberg (1400-1468, Mainz, Germany) is considered as the inventor of the method that made the mass-producing of books possible. He conceived the technique of combining letters to create text on paper using type cast in molds, a new, oil-based ink and a wooden printing press borrowing elements from the local Rhineland winepresses. In China, engraved wooden blocks had been used with a similar printing method to mass-produce books since the 9th century, but the results were rather poor in quality. Contrary to that, the prints made with Gutenberg’s technique were so precise, neat and elegant that the process spread swiftly across Europe and prevailed until the 19th century.

It’s very difficult to establish the exact date when the first edition of the Gutenberg Bible was completed. We know from the letters of Pope Pius II that in March 1455 he saw an example of the book displayed in Frankfurt to promote the edition. Sources also differ on the number of copies produced, but most probably there were about 180 finished copies, 3/4 of them on paper, the rest on vellum. Today, 49 of these are known to exist in whole or in part.

The chart is set to 12.00 on 23 February 1455, the day traditionally considered as the publishing date of the Gutenberg Bible.

CRYSTAL PALACE

The Crystal Palace was the emblematic building of The Great Exhibition, the first international event in a series of World’s Fair exhibitions of modern culture, science, industry and design from the mid-19th century. The show was hosted in Hyde Park, London, from 1 May to 11 October 1851 and was organized by Prince Albert and Henry Cole, with the prime intention to educate the public’s taste, spread scientific knowledge and to prove to the world Great Britain’s superiority as industrial leader. There were more than 13,000 exhibitors listed in the illustrated catalogue of the event from all over the world, presenting the newest inventions in every possible field from industrial machinery through household appliances to fine arts.

The Crystal Palace, designed by Sir Joseph Paxton and structural engineer Charles Fox, was specifically built to house the exhibition. The elements of the giant greenhouse – a cast-iron structure covered with clear plate-glass – were all prefabricated and the construction went from the organization to the grand opening in just nine months. The design, the new structural solutions invented by Paxton and the construction method and quality of the building was unequalled in its time and established a new architectural standard. After the exhibition the building was disassembled and reconstructed in a larger form at Sydenham Hill, South-London, and housed several cultural events through decades until it was destroyed by a fire on 30 November 1936.

The Great Exhibition, visited by more than 6 million people, was a huge success and became a symbol of the Victorian Age.

The chart is set to 9.00 am on 1 May 1851, when the doors of the Crystal Palace were first opened for the visitors.

WOODSTOCK

The Woodstock Festival was not only a pivotal moment in music history, but It’s also a symbol for an era and an important milestone in the unfolding of the counterculture phenomenon of the 1960s, that had a huge influence on modern society and culture.

The festival – formally known as Woodstock Music & Art Fair – took place in a 600-acre dairy farm southwest of Woodstock, New York, in the town of Bethel, in 1969. The event was billed as “An Aquarian Exposition: 3 Days of Peace & Music”, starting August 15, but eventually it ran over four days, ending on August 18 just before noon. Over the course of these four days more than half a million people visited the festival and listened in the rain to the 32 acts of leading and emerging performers of the time. Among the line-up were Joan Baez, Ravi Shankar, Santana, Creedence Clearwater Revival, Jefferson Airplane, Joe Cocker, Janis Joplin and Jimi Hendricks.

The documentary film Woodstock was released in 1970, received an Academy Award for Documentary Feature and was selected for preservation in the United States National Film Registry by the Library of Congress as being “culturally, historically, or aesthetically significant”.

The chart is set to 14.00 on 16 August 1969, when Carlos Santana attended the stage to start his performance.